One of the cornerstones of the past fifty years has been the financial architecture based on the ‘petrodollar’. This is where oil producers sell their product to the world in exchange for US dollars. These dollars are then invested in dollar-denominated assets and markets, explicitly supporting the US dollar as the world’s main reserve currency. Most commodities are also priced in dollars.
Many nations – from allies such as France, to the non-aligned such as India, to hostile states such as China and Russia – chafe under this financial system. The dollar’s dominance is now being openly challenged as the world bifurcates into pro and anti dollar factions.